38:1 – Winter 2014

by Forum Staff on April 4, 2014

EDITOR’S NOTE

A Conversation with Joseph S. Nye, Jr. on Presidential Leadership and the Creation of the American Era
Joseph S. Nye, Jr.
In this interview, Joseph S . Nye, Jr . shares insights from his recently published book, Presidential Leadership and the Creation of the American Era and touches on the varied types of power, leadership, and influence exerted over the United States’ history .

A Conversation with the Center for Civilians in Conflict on Preventing Civilian Suffering
Sarah Holewinski and Marla Keenan
In this interview with The Fletcher Forum, Sarah Holewinski and Marla Keenan of the Center for Civilians in Conflict discuss the Center’s work over the past decade and the most pressing challenges facing civilian protection in modern conflict.

Rare Earth Elements: China’s Monopoly and Implications to U.S. National Security
Charles Butler
Highlighting an emergent security issue, Charles Butler details the geo-political importance of rare earth elements and China’s current monopoly. As these fifteen elements are key natural resources for the production of commercial and military products, the author underscores the need for the United States to secure its hold on the extraction and production of rare earth elements, and outlines several policy options.

Pakistan’s Insider Threat
Dan Markey
In this article, author Dan Markey explores the role of the military in Pakistani society. He discusses external pressures on the Pakistani military, and highlights the nexus between Islamic extremism and military institutions as well as the ramifications for security and stability. Markey questions the common view that Pakistan faces an immediate threat to state control from extremists, but points to groups such as Hizb-ut-Tahrir who, with a patient outlook and unknown reach inside Pakistani state institutions, may pose a serious, long term internal threat to Pakistan’s stability.

The End of Social Media Revolutions
Sarah Lange
Amidst an era of rapid development in communication tools, this article examines the dynamics of modern information and communication technologies (ICTs) and mass surveillance tools in altering the balance of power between citizen and sovereign. The article considers the differences in how this power balance played out in the 2004 Orange Revolution in Ukraine, Iran’s 2009 Green Movement, and the Arab Spring. Lange asserts that uprisings can still succeed in challenging repressive regimes through non-violent conflict, but that mass surveillance technologies in these states counters the liberating potential of ICTs.

Partisans, Profiteers, and Criminals: Syria’s Illicit Economy
Matt Herbert
In this in-depth look into the channels of Syria’s illicit economy, Matt Herbert discusses both the historical and current situation in Syria. The author claims that the Syrian government has long benefitted from the nation’s position as a locus for smuggling in the Middle East, but that in recent years insurgent organizations and smuggling groups have assumed control of the illicit economy, and in particular the arms trade. Matt Herbert argues that this change will prolong the civil war and complicate Syria’s post-conflict transition.

Determining if Progress Will Prevail or Peril: The Role for Women in Defining Afghanistan’s Future
Michelle Barsa
With both the April 2014 elections and the drawdown of international forces quickly approaching, this timely piece explores the importance of women
in ensuring the sustainability of gains made in Afghanistan over the past twelve years. Michelle Barsa argues that the inclusion of Afghan women in conversations on the socio-economic, political, and security challenges of Afghanistan›s post-2014 future will help to ensure the continued progress of these gains.

Public Diplomacy and Hard Power: The Challenges Facing NATO
Philip Seib
In questioning the future of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization this article traces the evolution of NATO’s influence to NATO’s role in the current political landscape. Phillip Seib asserts that NATO is on a problematic path, in part due its inattention to public diplomacy. The article further explores the issue of financial burden-sharing and how America’s shift in attention away from Europe affects how the transatlantic relationship functions. The author concludes with policy options to ensure NATO’s relevance, strength, and future.

Bridging the Divide: How can USAID and DOD Integrate Security 
and Development More Effectively in Africa?
G. William Anderson
This article considers the potential for coordination and collaboration
between the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Department of Defense (DoD). The author addresses the challenges and risks of a closer relationship, as well as emphasizes what can be done on the ground to improve USAID-DoD cooperation. He argues that, from both a security and development perspective, it is in the United States’ best interest to foster a more effective partnership between these two agencies.

Women in Peace Processes
Erin Tunney
Drawing from her interviews with women from South Africa and Northern Ireland, Erin Tunney describes the conditions for women in these post-conflict societies. The author seeks to address the question of whether the post-conflict structures in these countries, intended to support sustainable peace, effectively address the needs of women. Her research suggests that they do not as she uncovers and shares powerful accounts of the insecurity and gender violence faced by women in both of these countries.

Religious Diversity and Violent Conflict:
 Lessons from Nigeria
Robert Dowd
Is religious diversity correlated with religious violence within a state like
many theorize? Robert Dowd seeks to answer this question and to dispel the conventional wisdom that religiously homogenous polities are necessarily more peaceful. Using the powerful example of Nigeria, the author shows a more nuanced view of the relationship between religious diversity and tolerance.

Amnesty: Evolving 21st Century Constraints Under International Law
Juan Carlos Portilla
By using the case of Colombia to illustrate the evolving duty to prosecute international crimes, this article sheds light on the unresolved question of the international legality of amnesties—one facet of the peace versus justice dilemma, and an enigma for international criminal law to elucidate in the years to come.

Identifying the Responsibility to Protect
Halil Rahman Basaran
This article addresses the responsibility of the international community to prevent war crimes, crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansing, and genocide within a state’s borders. The author argues that the responsibility to protect (R2P) is a reflection of the purported “reason” of the international community, and examines the question of whether R2P can be conceptualized as a legal obligation.

The New Communication: Leveraging Community Relations to Transition From
 Wars Amongst the People to Peace Amongst the People
Joshua A. Frey
With the increased frequency of wars amongst the people, and the re-ordering of governments’ relationships with social networks as a result of globalization and communications technology, direct communication with the people is a critical priority for governments. Joshua A. Frey argues that through community relations, public affairs personnel can connect social networks to mobilize against threats to their communities and create peace amongst the people, transforming community relations into a partnership-building activity, better termed as community network relations.

 

 

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