THE URUGUAY ROUND OF MULTILATERAL TRADE TALKS
Trade in Services: The U.S. Position
Sarah E. Veale, James M. Spiegelman and Ilkka Ronkainen
Agriculture in the Uruguay Round
Charles E. Hanrahan
Financial and Economic Consequences of the Gulf War: Iraqi Responses
Apart from its obvious strategic implications, the Iran-Iraq war has brought about far-reaching structural changes in the economies of the belligerent nations. Falling oil prices have further exacerbated the war-related hardships. In this wide-ranging essay, Anne-Marie Johnson examines the measures Iraq has taken to meet the economic demands of this war. Iraq has developed export outlets, rescheduled its debt, built new transport facilities, and partially liberalized its private sector. Ms. Johnson concludes that Iraq has positioned itself favorably to deal with current and future challenges posed by the international economic environment.
Political Legitimacy and National Identity in Saudi Arabia: Competing Allegiances
Frederick W. Weston, III
National identity in the Arab world is a tenuous concept, often intertwined with and overshadowed by social and cultural allegiances. The Al-Saud family, rulers of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, have managed to unite the disparate religious and ethnic elements of their society – at least they have united them enough to forge a functioning nation-state. But not all Saudi subjects accept the Al-Saud’s kingdom as synonymous with their own concept of a true national identity. Frederick W. Weston, III traces the history of the Al-Saud’s efforts at state-building and concludes that national identity is still an unresolved question for the kingdom. Modernization has strengthened allegiance to the nation but weakened allegiance to the state (the Al- Saud) among the emerging middle class; this has potentially serious implications for the ruling family’s political legitimacy.
The U.S.-China Nuclear Agreement: A Failure of Executive Policymaking and Congressional Oversight
Daniel Homer and Paul Leventhal
The agreement for nuclear cooperation signed by the United States and China in July 1985 is a watershed for U.S. policy on preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. It provides an important barometer of the current commitment in Washington to the requirements of U.S. nonproliferation law and sets a precedent for future U.S. nuclear agreements. The results, conclude Daniel Homer and Paul Leventhal, are not encouraging. In negotiating the agreement, the Executive Branch allowed China to avoid key requirements of U.S. law. Congress had ample opportunity to remedy these defects but chose simply to paper them over. Mr. Homer and Mr. Leventhal describe and comment upon the process by which the U.S.-China agreement was negotiated and reviewed and consider the implications of this flawed agreement.
Arms Control Objectives of the Reagan Administration
Sam B. Rovit
Arms control proposals crafted by the Reagan administration have been more ambitious in their scope than all that preceded them. Curiously, these proposals were developed by men who, prior to their appointment to the administration in 1980, were sharply critical of past American arms control efforts. A common refrain among them was that arms control should do less, rather than more. Sam Rovit explores this contradiction by analyzing the striking contrast in the positions of arms control architects Richard Perle and Richard Burt prior to and since joining the Reagan White House. Mr. Rovit concludes that this dichotomy represents the key to understanding the true objectives of arms control in the Reagan administration- objectives distinct from those publicly proclaimed- and assesses why it is that such a schism has arisen.
In Whose Interest? International Banking and American Foreign Policy
by Benjamin J. Cohen
by Joseph Nye
The 49th Paradox: Canada in North America
by Richard Gwyn
Shootdown: Flight 007 and the American Connection
by R. W. Johnson
The Target Is Destroyed
by Seymour M. Hersh