FOREIGN POLICY VIEWS OF AMERICAN POLITICAL LEADERS
The New Slave Trade
William L. Armstrong
Continuity and Change in U.S. Strategic Nuclear Policy
Dale L. Bumpers
Protecting America’s Trade Without Protectionism
Richard A. Gephardt
America Needs a New South Africa Policy
Jesse L. Jackson
The U.S. Trade Deficit and Our International Competitive Position
Michael S. Dukakis
Toward a Community of Democratic Nations
D. Brent Hardt
In the first American military intervention since the Vietnam War, U.S. and Caribbean troops invaded Grenada in October 1983, overthrowing a Marxist military junta and restoring democratic government. The invasion provoked considerable controversy in the United States, but often forgotten or overlooked by both supporters and opponents of the action was that the decision to invade was not made unilaterally. Rather, as D. Brent Hardt argues, Grenada’s neighbors in the eastern Caribbean played a major role in initiating the intervention. According to Mr. Hardt, the Reagan administration probably would not have intervened in the absence of Caribbean support. This multilateral character of the intervention, he concludes, made it a political success in Grenada, the Caribbean, and the United States.
Project Food Aid: Tool for Rural Development?
Mark E. Ice
Properly utilized, project food aid has a legitimate role to play in development programming. Yet, because its budgetary costs are largely hidden and its rhetoric is so overtly humanitarian, it has been embraced uncritically and used indiscriminately. Evaluation has concentrated on the achievement of immediate, specific goals, such as the construction of a school or an irrigation canal. The author draws upon extensive field experience as a relief program administrator and a review of recent writings to assess the broader impacts of project food aid upon the complex socioeconomic environment of entire communities. In contrast to normal expectations, a feeding program can lead to a degraded nutritional status within the target group; an irrigation canal built by Food for Work can leave its rural laborers relatively worse off. These and other paradoxes are explored. In concluding, the author identifies some key considerations for improving the effectiveness and curbing the dangers of project food aid.
“Dangling Carrots Before Marxists”: U.S.-Mozambican Relations Since 1981
One of the more controversial developments in recent U.S. foreign policy is the adoption of the “Reagan Doctrine,” a policy that includes support for guerrilla movements opposed to Soviet-backed states in Central America, Asia, and Africa. Yet in an apparent reversal of its own doctrine, the Reagan administration has sought closer relations with the avowedly Marxist-Leninist government of Mozambique. Philip Nash examines the origins and development of this relationship from both the American and Mozambican viewpoints, and introduces a more general question: how can a government, while seeking to enlist support for the broad themes of its foreign policy, retain the flexibility to deal with local issues in a way that, on the surface, runs counter to those themes?
The Internationalization of the Korea Stock Exchange
Steven F. Thompson
In recent years, the South Korean government has given the Korea Stock Exchange (KSE) a key role to play in its drive to internationalize the economy and diversify its financial base. Such was not always the case, argues Steven Thompson in this survey of the history of the stock exchange and of Korean equity funds currently operating abroad. For years, the availability of government-subsidized loan capital allowed Korea’s largest corporations to avoid listing themselves on the exchange, leaving the KSE weak and prone to manipulation by a few powerful speculators. Current government policy to stimulate the exchange involves a tradeoff: heavy regulations help stabilize the KSE, yet they also tend to inhibit its growth. Based on interviews with officials of the KSE and the Ministry of Finance and with Korean academics, Mr. Thompson proposes specific steps the Korean government should take to solve this dilemma.
The Wise Men
by Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas