Why the HIV/AIDS Pandemic is a Structural Threat to Africa’s Governance and Economic Development
Alex De Waal
A peculiar feature of HIV/AIDS is that it contributes to unusually high levels of personal and economic stress, setting in motion processes of structural transformation. Seen as a threat to government power and national security, the epidemic calls for an agenda of restoring Africa to a progressive development path.
HIV/AIDS and Development: The U.S. Response An Interview with the USAID Administrator
What has USAID done to combat HIV/AIDS? Andrew Natsios examines the pressures that drove him to change USAID policies on the use of antiretroviral medications in Africa, discusses the global nature of the disease, and highlights the relationship between the War on Terror and the epidemic.
Terrorist Acts as “Armed Attack”: The Right to Self-Defense, Article 51(1/2) of the UN Charter, and International Terrorism
The U.S. administration’s recent expansive interpretation of the right to self-defense under Article 51 of the UN Charter requires a concurrent reassessment of the legal concepts of necessity and proportionality in the context of terror.
Interesting Times for International Humanitarian Law: Challenges from the “War on Terror”
International humanitarian law is fine—as long as it is appreciated for what it is rather than criticized for what it is not. Legal advisor to the International Committee of the Red Cross probes the idea of whether humanitarian law is applicable to the War on Terror and argues that the values of human security and the rule of law enshrined in the Geneva Conventions should be upheld.
Self-Determination and Cultural Diversity
How does a “right” to self-determination fare next to the state practice of intervention? If self-determination leads to cultural homogeneity, does it also lead to oppression?
Uti Possidetis Juris: From Rome to Kosovo
The legal principle of uti possidetis juris defines national borders within Africa and Latin America and still informs the conceptual thinking on international frontiers today. When applied to Kosovo, however, it has led to disastrous results.
The U.S. Versus The World? How American Power Seems to the Rest of Us
“Just about everything the U.S. does—or chooses not to do—makes an enormous difference to everyone else,” says the former Foreign Minister of Australia and current president of the International Crisis Group. If the U.S. is to enjoy its power, it might want to make friends, rather than enemies, with other nations.
Rule of Law or Dictates by Fear: A German Perspective on American Civil Liberties in the War Against Terrorism
The post-9/11 contest between national security and civil liberties in the U.S. has so far favored the former, raising concerns both in America and abroad.
Democracy and Development: The Evolution of U.S. Foreign Assistance Policy
Until recently, U.S. foreign assistance to developing countries was based on the belief that democratization could be deferred until development objectives had been achieved. According to the executive director of Freedom House, that belief is changing.
Nuclear Diplomacy vis-à-vis the DPRK: A Dead-End Street
The nature of the North Korean regime and the immeasurable value of nuclear weapons to Pyongyang make any talks with Kim Jong Il futile. Rather than waste time, the U.S. should persuade South Korea and China to put more pressure on the North Korean government.
The War Against Terrorism and the Conflict in Chechnya: A Case for Distinction
Islamic radicalism stands as a result, not a cause, of Moscow’s war in Chechnya. The current Russian assault against the Chechen people, conveniently dubbed an “anti-terrorist” operation, will only breed more chaos and extremism.
Chechnya’s Internal Fragmentation, 1996 – 1999
Independence, the cherished dream of the Chechen resistance movement, was briefly won in 1996, but turned into a cruel and disappointing experiment. Unwilling to challenge the radicals on one side, and alienated by the Kremlin on the other, Chechen national leaders have been forced to watch the renewed carnage from the sidelines.
The Dynamics of Political Dissent in Egypt
David S. Sorenson
Successive Egyptian presidents have tolerated a limited amount of public criticism, but for the most part considered it to be “dissent” rather than loyal opposition. Professor David Sorenson examines different forms of Egyptian “dissent” and argues that its official interpretations have allowed the government to crush violent Islamist opponents and attack liberal adversaries.
The Victory of Expediency: Afghan Refugees and Pakistan in the 1990s
An examination of the policies implemented by the government of Pakistan and the international community towards Afghan refugees demonstrate that the international refugee regime is both highly politicized and offers few protections to asylum seekers in, or from, non-strategic peripheral states.
A Game Theoretic Analysis of Democracy, Tyranny, and Terrorism
The application of game theory to interactions between a government and a minority group within society reveals that stable majority/minority divisions lead to violence. However, where majority/minority divisions are flexible, democratic compromise may be possible.
Rationalization of NATO Forces in the Balkans
Alphonse F. La Porta
Not willing to be seen as an occupier in the Balkans, NATO forces have tried to regroup while emphasizing local capacity and reforming their own mandate.
Business Continuity for Global Enterprises: The Importance of Protecting and Managing Information Assets
Key business continuity lessons from September 11 point to the need for effective planning as well as responsible corporate governance.