THE ATLANTIC ALLIANCE
NATO of the Future: Less is More
A. W. DePorte
In 1982 the Atlantic Alliance descended into one of its periodic tailspins of discord and mutual recrimination over issues ranging from trade to security to international development. Inevitably, questions have resurfaced about the future viability of the Alliance. Dr. A. W. DePorte addresses these questions in a restatement of the case for the Atlantic Alliance, arguing that its primary goals are being met and that the Alliance need not be threatened by occasional (and inevitable) disputes over non-central issues. Following a discussion of the various perceptions of what the Alliance should accomplish and how it has in fact responded, the author suggests that the Alliance will continue to perform very well if it is released from the burden of unwarranted expectations.
A Questionable Infatuation: Toward a Solution of the TNF Issue
Glenn Andrew Kessler
The 1979 NATO decision to modernize its theater nuclear forces remains a divisive issue not only within European politics but between the United States and its NATO allies as well. In this article Glenn Kessler argues that while the original military rationale for the 1979 communique may be questionable, the political capital invested in the decision must not now be wasted. Accordingly, both the arms control and deployment components of the 1979 decision must be preserved in order to ensure the credibility of future NATO communiques. Kessler suggests a multiphase negotiation strategy to address these imperatives.
THE MIDDLE EAST
A Candid View of the Middle East: An Interview
Ambassador Hermann Frederick Eilts
As a career foreign service officer, Hermann Eilts served in the Middle East for thirty-two years and was the U.S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia from 1965 to 1970 and the U.S. Ambassador to Egypt from 1973 to 1979. Presently he is Director of the Center for International Affairs and chairman of the political science department at Boston University. In this interview, Ambassador Eilts gives his views of the participants and issues confronting American policymakers in the Middle East. He responds to a wide-ranging series of questions touching on every aspect of American concern in the region. While rejecting some commonly held notions about the Arab-Israeli dispute, Ambassador Eilts urges a steadier and more balanced policy approach for the United States in the Middle East.
Arms For Peace: The Role of U.S. Arms Transfer Policy in the Middle East Peace Process
During the past decade, the United States has supported Middle East peace initiatives with massive arms transfers to states in the area. In this article, Scot Marciel describes the American use of arms for peace and assesses the value of arms in furthering the peace process. Critical of the vague analysis relied on by proponents of arms transfers, Marciel closely examines the particular kinds of goals American policymakers have hoped to achieve and the relationship between these goals and progress toward peace. After reviewing the history of American efforts to supply arms to support the peace process, Marciel concludes that, while well-defined and selective transfers of arms have assisted movements toward peace, the general utility of such transfers is questionable. Marciel urges that future arms transfers be considered more carefully to determine whether they actually fulfill a specific, concrete function in the peace process.
The Mass Migration of Refugees and International Law
Margaret Dyer Chamberlain
Until the 1960s, international concern over “refugee” movements had essentially been restricted to conditions in Europe arising out of World War II. Since that time, mass migrations in other parts of the globe, particularly the Third World, have challenged the established definition of “refugee” in international law and made new demands upon the world community and international organizations. In this article, Margaret Chamberlain traces the history of mass migration in international law, highlights unresolved issues in the refugee debate and proposes new and more thorough world community actions.
Immigration Reform and International Students
Legislation currently being considered by the United States Congress would require international students studying in America to return home for two years following completion of their studies. In this essay, Leslie Rowe argues that the legislation, which reflects the national preoccupation with jobs, the concern over uncontrolled borders, and the emotional response to recent events in Iran, could lead to a “brain-drain” away from the United States, would not benefit the developing countries and could impose hardship on some foreign students.
Bilateral Applications of International Environmental Law to North American Acidic Deposition
The ongoing negotiations between the United States and Canada over the issue of acidic deposition highlight the international nature of environmental problems. The following article examines the causes and characteristics of transboundary acidic deposition, discusses the U.S.-Canadian negotiations towards an agreement on North American air quality, and analyzes the role of developing principles and practices of international environmental law in support of these efforts.
Notes on U. S. -Japanese Trade Friction
Lawrence B. Stollar
The United States and Japan have been enmeshed in a conflict concerning trade relations for over a decade, with the conflict likely to worsen in the near future. In this essay Larry Stollar analyzes the sources of this trade friction, looking for its underlying causes, not the issues that are discussed at the negotiating table. He then offers suggestions for both Japan and the United States which could lead to, if not a reconciliation, then, an alleviation of differences whereby both countries would gain and the negative consequences of continued conflict would be minimized.
The International Financial System and Developing Country Debt Management: The Process, Problems and Prospects
As developing countries sink further into debt and lender countries become increasingly aware of the implications of large scale defaults, the international community is devoting greater attention to the question of debt management. In this article, Paul Sigur casts the main actors involved in international lending and borrowing, discusses the mechanism for debt rescheduling and analyzes three representative case studies of debt management. Sigur argues that the international financial system, though imperfect, has successfully dealt with debt crises and will continue to do so despite occasional fears of international financial collapse. The author concludes with some suggested reforms for the debt management process and a forecast of future developments.
THE NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY
Investigating the Puzzle Palace: An Interview with James Bamford
Bonnie Brennan and Katherine Gilbert
Strategies of Containment
John Lewis Gaddis
A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret Story of Chemical and Biological Warfare
Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman
The Group of 77: Evolution, Structure, Organization
Karl P. Sauvant