40:2 – Summer 2016
Inclusive Approaches to Global Prosperity
Diane Elson and Amit Badhuri
Economic justice requires the full realization of human rights for all, and this implies expansion and revision of narrow paradigms of growth that perpetuate gender and income inequities worldwide. DIANE ELSON and AMIT BHADURI discuss the need for increased awareness around unpaid labor, a shift away from GDP-centric growth policies, and the creation of “a new public commons” to maximize sharing of public and social goods in pursuit of true economic justice.
Maria Sagrario Floro and John Willoughby
Feminist economics provides new analytical frameworks for examining the gender relations that permeate traditional economic relationships, but are often left undiscussed. With an eye to the Sustainable Development Goals of 2030, MARIA SAGRARIO FLORO and JOHN WILLOUGHBY demonstrate how feminist economics addresses deep structural inequities. They call for more attention to the tensions and contradictions created by globalization, which can simultaneously empower and marginalize women and girls in the economic sphere.
Despite greater concerns over European integration, European Union trade policy continues to move forward as a priority for the European Commission. In light of the EU’s shift away from the WTO as a comprehensive trade regime, PANAGIOTIS DELIMATSIS outlines the bene ts of an EU partnership with the United States, citing the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership as a potential blueprint for multilateral trade in the future.
The investment landscape in Africa has changed; once seen as an unlikely location for private investment, African countries are now able to select between investors who view these markets as a difficult but rewarding prospect. DAVID RICE discusses the need for integrated value chains, quality data collection, and local ownership in order to foster productive enterprises and inclusive growth on the continent.
David Bruce Wharton
Within the U.S. Department of State, the Bureau of African Affairs faces the challenges of public diplomacy, democracy promotion, and its own internal process. As the Bureau’s Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, DAVID BRUCE WHARTON reviews the role the public sector can play to support peaceful political transitions, the rule of law, infrastructure development, and crisis prevention across multiple African countries.
New Challenges in Global Security
Both the public and private sectors face growing cyber threats. Drawing on his experience with the U.S. government, KEITH ALEXANDER underscores the need for an integrated, responsive cyber strategy, envisioning a cyber strategy that encompasses both privacy and security concerns.
Unlike discussions of conventional security, conversations about cyber security do not yet have an agreed-upon underlying framework. TIM RIDOUToffers a lexicon and framework for critical concepts of cybersecurity, layingthe groundwork for a comprehensive cyber strategy that relies on defense, deterrence, and resilience in order to manage and mitigate potential attacks.
The military defeat of ISIL is not the only challenge currently facing Iraq; the Iraqi government must also address economic concerns, sectarian division, and resettlement of internally displaced persons. Reflecting on these issues, Speaker of the Iraqi Parliament SALIM AL-JABOURI emphasizes that Iraq’s reconstruction must be inclusive and locally-driven, while calling on the international community to support these initiatives in the name of human rights.
With a majority Armenian population, the Nagorno-Karabakh Region (NKR) in Azerbaijan currently seeks formal recognition as a state from the international community. Invoking principles of self-determination, customary recognition, and R2P, AMIT CHHABRA maps the conflicts and challenges NKR has encountered thus far.
Arnold N. Pronto
The journey of secession does not always lead to statehood. Irredentist secession involves the movement of people and territory from one state to another, rather than the creation of a new state. ARNOLD PRONTO discusses the legal distinctions between irredentist secession and secession that seeks statehood, emphasizing differences in the application of the principle of self-determination, the question of international recognition, and the role of consent.
The “thin cosmopolitan” view of international relations presents humanity as a single moral community. Given the accompanying obligation to safeguard all members of this community, TOR DAHL-ERIKSEN explores the connection between thin cosmopolitanism and the recently established norm of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P), while drawing attention to the gap between theory and reality in humanitarian interventions (or failures to intervene) and human rights from Rwanda to the present day.
The U.S. Space Resource Exploration and Utilization Act of 2015 (SREU) establishes that space resources are subject to property rights, raising a potential conflict with other legislation surrounding resource extraction in space. ANDREW LINTNER evaluates the SREU against relevant international law, finding that it does not conflict with the Outer Space Treaty or the Moon Agreement in the areas of sovereignty over and national appropriation of space resources.
João Vale de Almeida
Coordination between the European Union and United Nations must account for the diverse interests and identities of each organization’s member states. As both a senior EU diplomat and current EU Ambassador to the UN, JOÃO VALE DE ALMEIDA describes areas of overlap and coordination across trade, development, and political issues that exemplify the EU’s motto of “united in diversity.”
The European Union is at a critical point in its integration process. Outlining and critiquing the EU’s typical crisis resolution pattern, EVA KAILI discusses EU cooperation and commitment problems not as evidence of failed integration, but part of a process of organizational learning and self-regulation. She frames crises as “a signal to move forward” that pushes the EU toward increased resilience, security, and harmonization.
In contrast to the European tradition of democratic pluralism, JOHN SHATTUCK points to a new phenomenon in Eastern European states: illiberal democracy. Popularized by authoritarian political discourse in Hungary and Poland, the trend toward illiberalism evidences deep discontent with democracy’s economic, identity, and security implications for Europe. Democracy, however, is capable of reforming itself from the inside, allowing for new structures of participation for its citizens—whereas the strict control of power in illiberal democracy blocks avenues for meaningful change.