35:2 – Summer 2011

Qadhafi, Libya, and the Politics of Change in the Middle East: An Interview
Ambassador David Mack
Revolution fever in the Middle East took a somber turn in Libya in February 2011, with Muammar al-Qadhafi’s brutal crackdown sparking international intervention. Citing a pan-Arabism fueled largely by the youth bulge and social media, Ambassador David Mack suggests that regimes across the Middle East will be increasingly confronted with calls for greater political freedom. The United States, he says, must recognize that solutions cannot be imposed and that meaningful political evolution will necessarily be slow.

Unplugging a Nation: State Media Strategy During Egypt’s January 25 Uprising
Alexandra Dunn
During the uprising that began on January 25, 2011, the Egyptian government instituted a widespread shutdown of communication tools in an effort to quarantine dissent. Alexandra Dunn explores the Egyptian regime’s recalibration of what constituted a threatening media sphere. She argues that its crackdown alienated the business community, disproportionately impacted apolitical citizens, and inadvertently increased international focus on the crisis.

Principals and Agents: Syria and the Dilemma of Its Armed Group Allies
Ethan Corbin
In the twenty-first century, the relationship between states and non-state armed groups has become increasingly salient. Although most states view armed groups as potential threats, other states see them as potential allies. In order to understand this important dynamic, it is helpful to amend traditional alliance theory with principal-agent theory, argues Ethan Corbin.

Stuck in the Roundabout: The Perils of American Policy on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Dylan Williams
While the revolutions and protests in the Middle East have produced a new sense of optimism, the Israel-Palestine dispute remains locked in the same patterns of trouble. Dylan Williams argues that the United States takes significant blame for this, as its policy toward the conflict is not only counterproductive to a peaceful resolution, but also contrary to the dominant hopes of the American Jewish community.

Sports: A Powerful Strategy to Advance Women’s Rights
Astrid Aafjes
In the last decade, gender-focused sports programs have become increasingly popular as a way to advance women’s rights. Astrid Aafjes, the founder and executive director of Women Win, analyzes this strategy. Aafjes examines the effects of this rights-based approach on human development, including Title IX’s equal funding requirement for all federally funded sports programs at U.S. schools and universities.

China in Africa: Symbiosis or Exploitation?
David Haroz
China’s engagement in the African continent continues to grow. In examining the history, economic viability, and political expediencies of the Sino-African relationship, David Haroz concludes that the current relationship is more symbiotic than exploitative.

Croatia’s European Future: A Conversation with President Ivo Josipovic
Ivo Josipovic
Professor Ivo Josipović, President of the Republic of Croatia, assesses the political situation in Southeast Europe as stable, though fraught with continuing challenges. Serbia is attempting to balance regional cooperation with Kosovo’s independence, while Bosnia and Herzegovnia is enacting constitutional changes to transcend the imperfections of the Dayton Agreement. Against this dramatic regional backdrop, Croatia is entering the final stage of its EU accession talks while navigating painful political, economic, and social reforms.

“Passed Beyond Our Aid:” U.S. Deportation, Integrity, and the Rule of Law
Daniel Kanstroom
Diverse political and social dynamics have fueled the recent movement for stricter federal immigration and deportation laws. Daniel Kanstroom, a professor of law and director of the International Human Rights Program at Boston College Law School, looks specifically at the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (AEDPA) and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA). He analyzes their impact on deportation and the rule of law in the United States.

Why Policymakers Are Confused About Victory
William C. Martel
The United States is now engaged in three simultaneous military operations and faces widespread public debate over the effectiveness of U.S. military intervention. Professor William C. Martel argues that without a clear definition of victory, policymakers risk failure. Martel presents four central questions policymakers must consider and suggests a systematic framework for the concept of victory.

Business and Human Rights: Together at Last? A Conversation with John Ruggie
John Ruggie
After releasing the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights earlier this spring, John Ruggie sat for a conversation about their development, their relationship with the “Protect, Respect, and Remedy Framework” and United Nations Global Compact, and how corporations are now trying to “Ruggie- proof” their operations.

Oceanic Revolution and Pacific Asia
John Curtis Perry
In the motley region of Pacific Asia, the ocean provides a common frontier of opportunity and of challenge. Maritime history scholar Professor John Curtis Perry traces 200 years of evolution in the ocean’s role as avenue, arena, and source in an increasingly globalized world. The Indian Ocean’s emergence alongside the Asian Pacific as the epicenter of maritime life, Perry argues, brings sweeping consequences for the global trade balance and marks a new phase in the ongoing oceanic revolution.

Somalia: Where a State Isn’t a State
J. Peter Pham
For years, the United Nations, the African Union, and Western governments have tried to pressure, cajole, and bribe Somalis into accepting the charade that Somalia is capable of being rebuilt. The failure of fourteen peace conferences to create a functioning central government for Somalia has forced the international community to wrestle with what sovereignty really means in the twenty-first century and what qualifies today as a state. African security scholar J. Peter Pham explores alternative paths to stability in the Horn of Africa and unveils the reality of “the other” Somalia: Somaliland and Puntland.

Book Review
Orange Revolution and Aftermath: Mobilization, Apathy, and the State in Ukraine
by Paul D’Anieri 

22:1 – Winter/Spring 1998

35:1 – Winter 2011