9:2 – Summer 1985

Dilemmas of Caribbean Development: An Interview
G. Arthur Brown
The Honorable G. Arthur Brown has been Associate Administrator of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) since 1978, overseeing all operations of UNDP throughout the world. His vast experience in international development includes top-level positions in both the public and private sectors. From 1962 to 1977 he was responsible for all of Jamaica’s negotiations with the IMF, the World Bank, multinational lenders, and foreign governments. Brown served as Alternate Governor of the World Bank, the IMF, and the Inter-American Development Bank. He also served as Alternate Governor of the Caribbean Development Bank, which he helped found. He was also a member of the Group of Twenty appointed by the IMF to reform the international monetary system. In this interview, Mr. Brown discusses the dilemmas of development confronting the island nations of the Caribbean. He evaluates the U.S. role in this region of growing unrest, focusing particularly on the impact and future prospects of the Caribbean Basin Initiative. In comparing the alternative strategies pursued by different countries, Mr. Brown concludes that more pragmatism combined with better management skills will be the keys to sustaining, and ultimately improving, the quality of life in the Caribbean.

Intertwined Futures: Puerto Rico and the U.S.
Juan M. García Passalacqua
In this article, Mr. Garcia-Passalacqua emphasizes the historical and continuing significance of Puerto Rico to the stability of the Caribbean region and, by extension, to the security of the United States. After a brief overview of the island’s colonial past, the author examines the forces operating across its current political spectrum and traces the interaction of these forces with the political and military presence of the United States. Mr. Garcia- Passalacqua finds that the political pressures building within Puerto Rico – as evidenced by shifting electoral alignments and by the actions of separatist terrorist groups – are being exacerbated by the apparent indifference of U.S. policymakers and the perception of increased U.S. militarization of the island. He concludes that the legitimacy of the island’s political needs, the urgency with which those needs must be addressed, and the genuine strategic importance of Puerto Rico require that the U.S. act immediately to help define the island’s future and end its current colonial status.

Terrorist Warfare: Formidable Challenges
Dr. James B. Motley
In this article, Dr. Motley assesses terrorism as a form of warfare. He identifies the place which terrorism occupies on a spectrum of military conflict differentiated by risk, probability of occurrence, and level of intensity. Dr. Motley draws upon this model to outline a corresponding defensive role for U.S. armed forces – a role for which those forces must adapt. The probable increasing use of terrorist tactics to pursue military objectives in opposition to U.S. interests requires that the U.S. develop the necessary tactical skill and flexibility to meet this threat, he concludes.

Coping with Terrorism
Paul B. Henze
Mr. Henze’s article examines the relationship between domestic and foreign sources of funding and inspiration for numerous terrorist groups operating in the world today. The author identifies the Soviet Union’s strategy of promoting subversion abroad and its practice of financing and supplying subversive groups both directly and through surrogates as the key threat which terrorism poses to Western interests. He traces some of the ties through which Soviet direction and support are transmitted to those engaged in subversive activities and uses the example of Armenian terrorism to demonstrate the connection between terrorist objectives and Soviet interests. In conclusion, Mr. Henze emphasizes the need for Western and non-aligned nations to understand and expose the extent of Eastern-bloc support of terrorism and to improve further their channels of communication as means of reducing its occurrence.

The Nexus of Culture and Politics: A Study of Film in U.S.-China Relations
Marguerite Gong Hancock
Throughout Chinese history the interaction of politics and culture has been paramount in defining China’s identity as a state and as a civilization. In this article, Marguerite Gong Hancock analyses this historical interplay from the arrival of Western traders in the mid-nineteenth century to the nationalism ultimately embodied in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). She argues that despite changing regimes and ideologies, the Chinese leaders of the twentieth-century have continually manipulated specific cultural forms, such as film, to accomplish political aims. Examining U.S. policies designed to improve relations with the PRC, Mrs. Gong Hancock proposes that because of this Chinese fusion of culture and politics, the export and exchange of American films has accurately reflected the evolving state of U.S.-China relations, as well as served as a tool for building bilateral relations with the PRC.

Hong Kong and Singapore: The Future of Asian Financial Centers
Edith E. M. Johnson
Hong Kong and Singapore currently serve as Asia’s two main financial centers. Analyses of the evolution of international finance have generally concluded that within a given region, a single financial market is likely to predominate. Yet such centralization has not occurred in Asia – while Hong Kong is the loan syndication center, Singapore remains the chief funding source – the nexus of the Asian dollar market. Edith E. M. Johnson compares the development of these two financial centers and discusses their future prospects while evaluating the increasing importance of Japan. She concludes that while Tokyo eventually will be the primary Asian financial hub, Hong Kong and Singapore are likely to maintain their current financial roles in the short run.

Innovations in Philanthropy: Towards a New Ideology for International Giving
Augusta Pipkin
Philanthropic foundations have always been an important part of the American ethos. In recent years, however, the value and purpose of philanthropy have been increasingly questioned. In this article, Augusta Pipkin reviews the work of the major foundations in the field of international affairs, and finds that their influence and importance are now diminishing because of increased government involvement in international aid programs. Ms. Pipkin argues that large foundations such as Carnegie, Ford, and Rockefeller have been affected more seriously than have the newer, smaller foundations. By selecting specific aims and by seeking to influence government policy on particular issues, the smaller foundations have been more successful in coping with growing governmental involvement, she concludes.

The Role of the United States in Nicaragua from 1912-1933
Frank C. Pandolfe
Recent United States involvement in the Central American and Caribbean region has focused national attention on the issue of U.S. intervention in foreign countries. In this article Frank C. Pandolfe traces U.S. activities in Nicaragua from 1912-1933. He argues that it is only through an analysis of past United States relations with Nicaragua that we can fully understand present problems between the two countries. Examining both the type and extent of U.S. involvement in Nicaragua in the years between 1912 and 1933, he points out that the internal political situation of both countries affected the U.S. decision to intervene with economic and military aid. Mr. Pandolfe then discusses the impact of United States troops and funds on Nicaraguan political and economic stability, asserting that many of the problems associated with the U.S. presence were the results of conflicting expectations within the United States and Nicaragua. Ultimately, U.S. intentions in Nicaragua were good, the author concludes, but political stability must be the product of Nicaragua, not of foreign intervention.

Brazilian Informatics Policy: What Price Sovereignty?
Jean Johnson
In recent years, Brazil has developed an advanced technological base and a strong computer and data services sector. Recent policies aimed at protecting its domestic market put it in direct conflict with U.S. policies which seek to open foreign markets to U.S. exports and investment opportunities. In this article, Jean Johnson examines how Brazil’s concern for its national security, technological independence, and development into an “information society” has led to the imposition of a policy of strict protection for Brazil’s computer, or informatics, industry for at least the next eight years. Although the policy stems from legitimate concerns about the need to preserve Brazil’s sovereignty, and to further its economic development, there are considerable obstacles in the way of its success. Nevertheless, Brazil does have a strong political commitment to see it succeed, and as Ms. Johnson advises that strident opposition from the U.S. may only exacerbate the already strained diplomatic relations between the two countries. A successful Brazilian effort to promote its technological and economic development will benefit U.S. interest in the long run, she concludes.

Remote Sensing: American Law and Sensed States’ Demands
Jeannette Biondo
With the impending potential privatization of the United States’ successful Landsat remote sensing system, attention is being focused on the legal issues surrounding the operation of these “eyes in the sky.” Much of the controversy in recent years has concerned the rights of sensed states regarding the use of their territories’ images. Jeannette T. Biondo outlines the viewpoints of the various countries involved, and describes the apparent inability of the current United Nations negotiations to result in an agreement. She then proposes ways in which sensed states might make use of American copyright, privacy, and trade secret law to secure the right to participate in remote sensing operations.

Book Reviews
Our Own Worst Enemy: The Unmaking of American Foreign Policy
by I. M. Destler, Leslie H. Gelb, and Anthony Lake

An International Law of Guerrilla Warfare
by Keith Suter

10:1 – Winter 1986

9:1 – Winter 1985